Anatomical dissection – line work pen and ink

Anatomical dissection illustration examples

Project goals

The goal of this project is for the students to produce a pen and ink illustration of an anatomical dissection. Through depicting the dissection in pen and ink the students will convey detailed superficial, deep, soft and hard tissue in a clear and clean format widely used in anatomical and surgical books. Emphasis will be placed on anatomical accurate observation of the subject matter, understanding the specimen from the deepest bone to the most superficial skin layer.  Instructional impact of the illustration for educational reasons is paramount. The project will provide the student with skills in pen and ink and Adobe Illustrator.

 

Project objectives

  • Learn to analyse good examples of anatomical dissection illustrations from which to benchmark own work. Emphasis on instructional impact for educational texts.
  • Build upon previous pen and ink drawings from the pelvis project.
  • Develop pen and ink techniques, common vocabulary relating to pen and ink and understanding of the materials used.
  • Grasp the basics creating line art in Adobe Illustrator and adding leader lines and labels to the final artwork.
  • Investigate the anatomy of a chosen specimen and evidence understanding through sketches and text.
  • Plan final illustration by initially drawing the underlying skeleton to demonstrate understanding of the bony structures, before building and progressing to the other anatomical structures.
  • Create a pen and ink illustration of an anatomical dissection.
  • Preparing a very well rendered pencil illustration of the of the dissection as the precursor to the final image.
  • Producing pen studies of sections of anatomical dissection focusing on the differences between muscle, bone, tendon, ligament, blood vessels and nerve bundles. Perfect their style and explore the illustrative means of distinguishing them.

Project Outcomes

  • An anatomically accurate pen and ink dissection illustration which shows strong educational instructional impact.
  • A well rendered pencil illustrations of the dissection as the precursor to the final pen and ink version.
  • A collection of sketchbook drawings evidence understanding of the anatomy of the specimen.
  • A collection of pen studies of sections of anatomy focusing on the techniques that identify the differences between muscle, bone, tendon, ligament, blood vessels and nerve bundles.
  • Pencil studies of various views of the specimen, focusing on its form and weight as a three dimensional object.
  • Ability to self assess own work.
  • Mastered pen and ink.
  • Skills in line art in Adobe Illustrator and the ability to create leader lines and labels.

Marking criteria. The marking criteria indicated here is a guide and grades are allocated in conjunction with the assessment criteria laid out under ‘Assessment Information – In-course Assessment Criteria’.

Criteria Levels of achievement
Illustrations/graphics impact and clarity. Including skill in pen and ink (Final line drawing only and marked out of 10 points)

• Instructional impact of drawing
• Observation accuracy and differentiation between structures and tissue types
• Skill and neatness of rendered illustration
• Effort given to the requirements of the project
• Understanding and control of art tools, materials and techniques, singly and in combination
• Understanding of elements, such as colour, line, texture, balance

Fluent ability

9-10 points

Confident ability

7-8 points

Competent ability

5- 6 points

Basic ability

3- 4 points

Limited ability

1-2 points

Anatomical accuracy and exploration
(Final line drawing only and marked out of 5 points)

• Anatomical accuracy
• Differentiation between tissue types (normal vs.
abnormal or veins vs. arteries)
• Interpretation of the underlying structures and
anatomy
• Included anatomy conveys purpose of illustration
• Size, viewpoint and orientation appropriate for this illustration
• Understanding of the anatomy in a wider context as demonstrated by studies and sketches.

Excellent form and anatomical accuracy

5 points

Almost no errors in form and /or anatomical accuracy

4 points

A few errorrs in form and/or anatomical accuracy.

3 points

Some errors in form and / or anatomical accuracy.

2 points

Major errors in the form and anatomy

1 point

Presentation and attractiveness
(Includes all images/sketchbooks etc and marked out of 5 points)

• Presentation neatness
• Layout consideration for the audience, and where it will be used (i.e. textbook or poster)
• Appropriate text, labelling, callouts, titles
• Spelling
• Use of art vocabulary when discussing artworks

Excellent

5 points

Extremely good

4 points

Very good

3 points

Good

2 points

Basic

1 point

Observational and exploratory quality of the collection of dissection illustrations.
(Includes all images/sketchbooks etc. and marked out of 5 points)

• Observational skill
• Exploratory studies of various tissue types, progression of disease or variations of appearance.
• Independent research and original concepts
• Understand stages of art-making
• Awareness and appreciation of the context and
purpose of illustration

Fluent ability

5 points

Confident ability

4 points

Competent ability

3 points

Basic ability

2 points

Limited ability

1 point

Level achieved from total points:
This project is marked on the four categories listed above. Once points are assigned to each category they are added up and a grade is given depending on the total points.
Distinction (20 – 25 points) Credit (19 – 15 points) High Pass (10 – 14 points Pass (5 – 9 points) Pass with Amends/ Referred for re-submission (1 – 4 points)

Additional supporting information to accompany your project guidelines Selecting your specimen

  • Look thoroughly around the museum at all the anatomy specimens and choose a good clear example to work from.
  • Do not move any specimens from the shelves without prior permission from the museum curator or a member of staff, who may wish to do this on your behalf, especially if it is in a large case or pot, ditto in reverse to return it to its original place in the museum.
  • You may choose a specimen which is a stand alone subject or you may wish to choose a piece that integrates in subject matter with one or more of your other projects.
  • You may wish or need to edit part/s of the specimens to select the area required or to eliminate unnecessary or extended parts, for example alter the dissected line in order to expose more detail or to make it more aesthetically pleasing.
  • Lighting of your specimen may be tricky within the museum due to the numerous light sources from around the room. Note your key light source so this can be followed through to your final artwork.
  • Choose a piece that shows muscles, tendons, vessels and nerves.
  • We recommend you choose a hand, foot, leg, hip or similar specimen. Your specimen choice needs to be agreed with your tutor prior to commencing. Head dissections have sometimes been chosen but these may not always be consistently available and patient identity may also be an issue.
  • Remember to consider what is the purpose of this artwork?
  • Even if you show all of the structures within your artwork, consider which you will select for annotation purposes. Which will you annotate? You may for example annotate just the superficial muscles, just the deep muscles, all the muscles, the vessels and/or nerves. We strongly recommend final annotation be completed within Illustrator.

Please note: when you are drawing from a dissected specimen, it is each student’s responsibility to gain the relevant consents. Further information may be found via the ‘National Guidelines’ link on the ‘Rules and Regulations’ page of this website. Also refer to ‘The Gordon Museum Release Form’ which accompanies this project.

Gordon Museum – Code of Conduct for Medical Drawings from Museum Specimens

  • Access is restricted to members of the college and to qualified practitioners and students of medicine, nursing or related studies, so it is essential to confirm your visit prior to arrival.
  • Visitors to the Museum must register on arrival and will be asked to show proof of identity and status (e.g. hospital ID pass, University or institution letter on headed paper with students course details etc.).
  • The museum is open 9am to 8.45pm Monday to Friday. Closed on Bank Holidays. The museum may be closed at other times including for examinations, so we always recommend that you check in advance if you are planning to visit and wish to make a booking. Admission is free for individual visitors, but donations are appreciated. We hope you enjoy using our collections. During your time studying in the museum, we ask you to adhere to our code of conduct to ensure the safety of all our visitors and our specimens.
  • If you have any questions or need any help while you are in the museum please speak to a member of museum staff, they can be reached using the phone situated at the front of the museum.
  1. Initially please check with a member of staff prior to the movement of specimens to help your study, and please do not move very large specimens or specimens labeled as fragile.
  2. Photography and filming are NOT permitted in the museum.
  3. The museum supports medical illustration, however we ask that if you illustrate any of our specimens you sign a form stating what was drawn and how they will be used. This is to comply with the regulations of the Human Tissue Authority and to ensure that the donors of our specimens remain anonymous. Please ask a member of museum staff for this form.
  4. All bags must be left in the lockers provided outside the museum. Please remove any books and other equipment from your bag if you need this.
  5. Only water is permitted in the museum (a water dispenser is present in the kitchen next to the lockers outside the museum). No other drinking fluids are allowed.
  6. Food is not permitted in the museum.
  7. Please use the alcohol hand sanitising gel before leaving the museum.

Please return all completed forms to: Mr. William G.J. Edwards, Curator, Gordon Museum, Senior Tutor and Head of Lister House, Deputy Director EMDP, Kings College London, Guy’s Campus, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine and Dental School at Guy’s, Kings + St.Thomas’ Hospital’s, St.Thomas’ Street, London SE1 9RT Gordon Museum – Medical drawing/image release form N.B. Please attach a copy of the image listed below to this form and use a new form for each individual image or artwork FORM IS ATTACHED AT THE END OF THE WORD DOC   5. Anatomical Dissection

Pencil drawing artwork A

  • Prepare a clear, keenly observed pencil drawing from direct observation.
  • Prepare this as a tonal pencil drawing in preparation for your final artwork.
  • Prepare of colour notated draft in preparation for your final artwork.
  • Prepare a noted draft of the structures to be annotated.
  • Take your time to observe and note the structures and specific details relating to your chosen specimen in conjunction with your anatomy reference texts.
  • Note the specimen number and case information.

Materials artwork A

  • Use good quality cartridge paper – recommend 250gms weight
  • Use sharp traditional pencils, having a good range available from 2H, H, B, 2B, 4B
  • Putty rubber

The final pen and ink artwork B

The final artwork artwork B

  • Your final artwork will be a black and white line illustration. Once the artwork is scanned, vessels and nerves etc. may be coloured in Photoshop or Illustrator with the traditional recognised palette found within published texts i.e. red for arteries, blue for veins and yellow for nerves. Labelling should be done in Illustrator.

Materials artwork B

  • Bristol board paper, cold press watercolour paper (such as 90 – 120lb) or smooth surface illustration board or paper.
  • There are many pen types to choose from, dip pens, technical pens and brush pens. For a technical pen, choose a high quality range of pens such as Staedtler or Rotring ranging from 0.05 to 0.8mm. Drawing pens are either created with pigment ink or dye. Artwork created with pigment ink will last longer and retain colour better than artwork created with dye ink.
  • Putty rubber
  • Cartridge paper and tracing paper
  • Sharp traditional pencils
  • Illustrator for labelling

What to I need to bring to class?

  1. First step in initial seminars: Locate an non-pathological anatomical dissection specimen at the Gordon Museum and decide from the outset, the area to be studied and the purpose of your illustration i.e. is it to show muscular structure, arteries, nervous system etc. Make initial accurate and interpretive sketches, and form a clear understanding of the differences between structures such as muscles, ligaments, bone, nerves and vessels. Research the anatomy, and plan the project initially by using the underlying skeleton. First prepare drawings to show your full understanding of the bony structure within, before building and progressing to the other anatomical structures revealed on your chosen dissection. Copy the specimen notes, and obtain initial feedback on your sketches from your supervisor. A lesson on pen and ink with an example to copy will be provided and you can review good examples of pelvis illustrations to benchmark your work. A online tutorial on Adobe Illustrator can be found on the MAET website.
    1. Homework you must bring to the next seminar:
      1. Form: Pencil and pen and ink studies of various views of your specimen, thinking of it as a three dimensional object with form and weight. Use all of your skills and knowledge from your foundation course for this piece.
      2. Exploration: In the orientation of your final artwork, draw the underlying skeleton first and then build up the other anatomical structures from the inside out. Follow the paths of nerves and blood vessels entirely through the specimen, evidence your understanding of their path way and divisions. Annotate your pencil drawings for clarity. You will use theses studies as the basis of your coursework draft.
      3. Medium development: Complete the homework example (called ‘Pen and Ink homework’) in pen and in Adobe illustrator focusing on the differences between muscle, tendon, ligament, blood vessels and nerve bundles. Perfect their style and explore the illustrative means of distinguishing them. Finally scan in your pen homework and complete the labelling in Adobe Illustrator following the pdf tutorial called text labelling essentials – lesson.
      4. Coursework draft: Pencil work-in-progress of your anatomical dissection as a precursor to the final pen and ink illustration. Create a photocopy of it with your anatomy labelled.
  2. Second step is the interim presentation: You present your finished pencil and pen and ink studies of the specimen from various views, and finished studies showing your have fully understood the anatomy and defined the purpose of your illustration. Present a work-in-progress pencil drawing which will be the precursor for your final pen and ink illustration, and a photocopy of it with your anatomy labelled. Supervisor and peer review of the work-in-progress will provide formative feedback to produce your final version.
    1. Homework for the next seminar:
      1. Incorporate any feedback received on the homework into your work and add final artwork to portfolio ready for next assessment. This work will not be marked independently at assessment, but will form part of the observation and exploratory section of the marking criteria.
      2. Complete the pen and ink coursework of the anatomical dissection based on feedback of the pencil version at seminar. Present again at following seminar for final feedback.
  3. Final step is the final presentation: Before submitting to assessment you must have it checked by the supervisor at seminars or on a designated tutoring day via email and telephone. In assessment your work will be marked according to the marking criteria of that project. You will receive a detailed feedback form after assessment.

What do I need to bring to assessment?

You must bring:

  • The final pen and ink life sized anatomical dissection, mounted and labelled.
  • Homework artworks which include all studies and the pencil drawings of the specimen.
  • Include a clear photograph within your portfolio of the specimen/s you are working from, having first obtained permission if required.
  • Make sure all artwork is well presented, neat and labelled.

Details on all the Medical Artists' Education Trust projects can be found below